The doctoral dissertations of the former Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and Aalto University Schools of Technology (CHEM, ELEC, ENG, SCI) published in electronic format are available in the electronic publications archive of Aalto University - Aaltodoc.

Land for Exchange and Land Banking in Land Development Projects

Tuomo Heinonen

Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Science in Technology to be presented with due permission of the Department of Surveying for public examination and debate in Auditorium M1 at Helsinki University of Technology (Espoo, Finland) on the 25th of October, 2005, at 12 noon.

Overview in PDF format (ISBN 951-22-7838-3)   [2346 KB]
Dissertation is also available in print (ISBN 951-48-0187-3)

Note: The language of the dissertation is Finnish.


The goal of the study is to find out if the utilisation of land for exchange and so called land banks is a possible way to implement the acquisition of land for public land development projects. Highway and nature conservation projects are examined as examples of these land development projects. The German environment and land banking system has been chosen as a reference for the Finnish environment.

The study is based on comparisons between the domestic and German experiences. The empirical observations of the exchange land acquisition and possibilities to use it are collected through the "Motti" -piloting project (land acquisition for Highway 3). The analyses of the German Landgesellschaft system and the principle of "the mildest means" are giving answers to the questions like why the land banking system is used and on which common requirements of the environment the performance of it is based.

The need for the land exchange and land banks in Germany is concluded to be in the first place a result from the strong position of the principle of `the mildest means`. The performance of the land banking system is based on the will of society; the demand, profitability and competitiveness of the model; the know-how of the organization; and the long-term and stabilized operations of the organization. The study defines and describes also the principle of a well functioning land bank.

The prospects of implementing the land banking model in Finland are seen to be limited. A separate and independent land banking organization has little chance of success in present circumstances in Finland. The land banking procedure in itself is usable and it can be put into practice for example by a joint land banking function of the Metsähallitus and TE-centres and by an authority and interest group-network supporting the preparation of the wider public land development projects.

This thesis consists of an overview and of the following 4 publications:

  1. Tuomo Heinonen. 1999. Vastikemaat maankäyttöhankkeissa – esimerkkinä Vt3 -moottoritiehanke. Teknillinen korkeakoulu, Kiinteistöopin ja talousoikeuden julkaisuja, C67. © 1999 by author.
  2. Tuomo Heinonen. 2000. Landgesellschaft – maapankkitoimintaa Saksassa. Maanmittaus-aikakauskirja 1-2/2000, s. 26-59. © 2000 Maanmittaustieteiden Seura ry. By permission.
  3. Tuomo Heinonen. 2001. Tilusjärjestelyt pakkolunastuksen vaihtoehtona – esimerkki suhteellisuusperiaatteen soveltamisesta Saksassa. Ympäristöjuridiikka 2-3/2001, s. 70-87. © 2001 Finnish Society for Environmental Law. By permission.
  4. Tuomo Heinonen. 2002. Die Realisierung von Landentwicklungsvorhaben durch Flurneuordnung – Erfahrungen in Finnland. Landnutzung und Landentwicklung 43, 2/2002, s. 78-81. © 2002 Blackwell Verlag. By permission.

Keywords: land of exchange, land banking, land acquisition, public land development project

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© 2005 Helsinki University of Technology

Last update 2011-05-26